the idea that Antarctica was the center of an ancient civilization, I
used to think that this was a pretty good explanation. However, in recent
times, I have come across some information that makes me question this
view. At present, what seems more likely is that North and South America
were, in fact, the site of an advanced civilization passed down in myth
and legend as a "great island" beyond the Pillars of Hercules.
I will go into that more further on, but for the moment, I want to draw
attention to the fact that Plato suggested that the Evil Empire of Atlantis
was at war with the "Athenians" just prior to a cosmic disaster.
So, in addition to considering the idea of cometary showers that could
have destroyed ancient civilizations more than once, and which may be
in our future, there is another matter to consider - which also bears
strongly on our dating problems - that ancient civilizations may have
fought nuclear wars.
dates for Pleistocene remains in northeastern North America, according
to scientists Richard Firestone of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
and William Topping, are younger‑as much as 10,000 years younger‑than
for those in the western part of the country. Dating by other
methods like thermoluminescence (TL), geoarchaeology, and sedimentation
suggests that many radiocarbon dates are grossly in error. For example,
materials from the Gainey Paleoindian site in Michigan, radiocarbon
dated at 2880 yr BC, are given an age by TL dating of 12,400 BC. It
seems that there are so many anomalies reported in the upper US and
in Canada of this type, that they cannot be explained by ancient aberrations
in the atmosphere or other radiocarbon reservoirs, nor by contamination
of data samples (a common source of error in radiocarbon dating). Assuming
correct methods of radiocarbon dating are used, organic remains associated
with an artifact will give a radiocarbon age younger than they actually
are only if they contain an artificially high radiocarbon keel.
to the possible source of artificially elevated 14C content
of Pleistocene remains may be found in the well-documented "atom
bomb effect." By the mid-1960s, thermonuclear tests, with their
enormous flux of thermal neutrons, had nearly doubled the volume of
14C in the atmosphere and more important nearly doubled
the 14C activity of buried carbon-bearing materials.[(Taylor,
1987: Higham Website) The closest I can come to understanding this
is that everything carbon bearing on the planet, including those things
that are buried, have had their C-14 doubled since 1960. If this is
the case, then virtually NO carbon dating done since that time can be
considered valid, possibly because of atmospheric drift of the C-14.]
words, the rate of beta emissions was artificially accelerated. The flux
of thermal neutrons had reset the radioactive clock, making materials
appear younger by radiocarbon dating than they actually were. [Mammoth
Trumpet, 16:2, March, 2001, pp 7-13]
indicates that the entire Great Lakes region (and beyond) was subjected
to particle bombardment and a catastrophic nuclear irradiation that
produced secondary thermal neutrons from cosmic ray interactions. The
neutrons produced unusually large quantities of Pu239 and substantially
altered the natural uranium abundance rations in artifacts and in other
exposed materials including cherts [a chert is basically bits of
glass.It is silica that has been heated until it fuses into tiny shards
of glass], sediments, and the entire landscape. These neutrons
necessarily transmuted residual nitrogen in the dated charcoals to radiocarbon,
thus explaining anomalous dates.
profiles were taken at Paleoindian sites and at numerous widely separated
control locations in Michigan. The C sediment horizon [before the
Holocene period, 10 to 12 thousand years ago] is clearly recognized
by its transitional color and confirmed by elevated concentrations of
potassium and other isotopes. Color and chemistry are key indicators
of this very old soil derived from parent materials and associated post-glacial
runoff. At Gainey, large quantities of micrometeorite-like particles
appear to be concentrated near the boundary between the B and C sediment
horizons. They can be separated with a magnet and are identified by
the presence of chondrules and by visual evidence of splintering and
partial melting. These particles, dissimilar to common magnetites,
are found in association with a high frequency of "spherules."
examination of chert artifacts from several widely separated Paleoindian
locations in North America revealed a high density of entrance wounds
and particles at depths that are evidence of high-velocity particle
variations in the isotopic ration do not occur because of chemical processes;
however a thermal neutron bombardment depletes U235 and thus alters
the ratio. Solar or galactic cosmic rays interacting with matter produce
fast secondary neutrons that become thermalized by scattering…[…] If
a large cosmic-ray bombardment impacted the earth and irradiated the
prehistoric landscape with thermal neutrons, the u235/U236 ratio would
be changed. […]
artifacts contained about 78 percent as much U235 as the controls and
later-period artifacts, suggesting substantial depletion. Depletion
of U235 necessarily indicates that thermal neutrons impacted these artifacts
and the surrounding prehistoric landscape. […] We derive a thermal neutron
flux … which corresponds to an approximate date of 39,000 years.
BC date proposed for the Gainey site is consistent with the prevailing
opinion among many archaeologists about when the Americas were populated.
It is also commensurate with dates for South American sites and with
a Mousterian toolkit tradition that many see as the Paleoindian precursor.
The proposed date for the Gainey site also falls closer in line with
the radiocarbon date for Lewisville, Texas, Paleoindian site of 26,610
+/- BC and radio carbon dates as early as 20,000 BC for Meadocroft Rockshelter.
Since the Lewisville and Meadocroft sites were likely exposed at the
same time to thermal neutrons, we estimate that their dates should be
reset to 55,000 and 45,000 BC, respectively. […] Dates for North American
sites should generally be reset by up to 40,000 depending on latitude
thermoluminescence date of 12,400 BC is probably a result of the heat
generated by the nuclear bombardment at that time, which would have
reset the TL index to zero. The modified dates for Paleoindian settlements
suggest that the timetable for glacial advance sequences, strongly driven
by conventional radiocarbon dates, should be revisited in light of the
evidence presented here of much older occupations than previously thought.
nuclear bombardment should have left evidence elsewhere in the radiocarbon
record. It is well known that radiocarbon dates are increasingly too
young as we go back in time. The global Carbon Cycle suggests that
C14 produced by cosmic rays would be rapidly dispersed in the large
carbon reservoirs in the atmosphere, land, and oceans. We would expect
to see a sudden increase in radiocarbon in the atmosphere that would
be incorporated into plants and animals soon after the irradiation;
after only a few years, most of the radiocarbon would move into the
ocean reservoirs. The C14 level in the fossil record would reset to
a higher value. The excess global radiocarbon would then decay with
a half-life of 5730 years, which should be seen in the radiocarbon analysis
of varied systems.[…]
increases in C14 are apparent in the marine data at 4,000, 32,000-34,000,
and 12,500 BC. These increases are coincident with geomagnetic excursions.
[…] Significant increases at that time are not found in comparable
data for the Antarctic, which indicates that the cosmic ray irradiation
was centered in the Northern Hemisphere. Weak evidence of an occurrence
at 12,500 BC is seen in the radiocarbon record for marine sediments
near Venezuela confirming that the cosmic ray bombardment was most severe
in North America.
catastrophe was large by standards of all suspected cosmic occurrences.
energy released by the catastrophe at 12,500 BC could have heated the
atmosphere to over 1000 C over Michigan, and the neutron flux at more
northern locations would have melted considerable glacial ice. Radiation
effects on plants and animals exposed to the cosmic rays would have
been lethal, comparable to being irradiated in a 5 megawatt reactor
more than 100 seconds.
pattern of the catastrophe matches the pattern of mass extinction before
Holocene times. The Western Hemisphere was more affected than the Eastern,
North America more than South America, and eastern North America more
than western North America. Extinction in the Great lakes area was
more rapid and pronounced than elsewhere. Larger animals were more
affected than smaller ones, a pattern that conforms to the expectation
that radiation exposure affects large bodies more than smaller ones.
[Firestone, Richard B., Topping, William, Terrestrial Evidence
of a Nuclear Catastrophe in Paleoindian Times, dissertation research,
1990 - 2001]
that Firestone and Topping discovered is puzzling for a lot of reasons.
It would be easy to suggest that they have discovered evidence of ancient
nuclear war, and are merely trying to put a "natural spin" on
it, but it may not be that simple. We realize that the idea that mankind
may have fought nuclear wars in the remote past is not allowed, you see,
so we can understand a need to come up with a really scary idea about
some sort of cosmic ray bombardment which set off natural uranium and
plutonium deposits in the earth. What is most interesting is the fact
that we again see that strange number 12,500 B.C.
reports of similar evidence from such widely spread regions as India,
Ireland, Scotland, France, and Turkey; ancient cities whose brick and
stone walls have literally been vitrified, that is, fused together like
glass. There is also evidence of vitrification of stone forts and cities.
It seems that the only explanation for such anomalies is an atomic blast.
Add to that the effects of cyclical cometary strikes, and considering
the reported regions that may have been affected, we are really in the
soup with trying to date anything! With all the bombs, asteroids, comets,
and whatever else flying around at periodic intervals, it seems entirely
likely that no radiometric dating method of any kind will straigten out
the mess. At best, we can use it as only a guideline.
recent times, the idea that cultural discontinuity was caused by cometary
showers was published, stating in part that the Dark Ages were also caused
by comets or asteroids.
How did that come along and no one recorded it?
is, the works of Gregory of Tours, Nennius, and what little has survived
from the few other writers close to the time, do mention these things.
But modern day historians were inclined to think that they were just superstitious
old galoots who wouldn't know an unusual object in the sky from their
own big toe.
have found the first evidence that a devastating meteor impact in the
Middle East might have triggered the mysterious collapse of civilisations
more than 4,000 years ago. Studies of satellite images of southern
Iraq have revealed a two-mile-wide circular depression which scientists
say bears all the hallmarks of an impact crater. If confirmed, it would
point to the Middle East being struck by a meteor with the violence
equivalent to hundreds of nuclear bombs. Today's crater lies on what
would have been shallow sea 4,000 years ago, and any impact would have
caused devastating fires and flooding. The catastrophic effect of these
could explain the mystery of why so many early cultures went into sudden
decline around 2300 BC."
scientific discoveries are shedding new light on why great empires like
Egypt, Babylon and Rome fell apart, giving way to the periodic "dark
ages" that punctuate human history. At least five times during
the last 6,000 years, major environmental calamities undermined civilizations
worldwide. Some researchers say these disasters appear to be linked
to collisions with comets or fragments of comets like the one that broke
apart and smashed into Jupiter five years ago this summer.
yielding many megatons of explosive energy, produced vast clouds of
smoke and dust that circled the globe for years, dimming the sun, driving
down temperatures and sowing hunger, disease and death. The last such
global crisis occurred between 530 and 540 - at the beginning of the
Dark Ages in Europe - when Earth was pummeled by a swarm of cosmic
In a forthcoming
book, Catastrophe, the Day the Sun Went Out, British
historian David Keys describes a two-year-long winter that began in
535. Trees from California to Ireland to Siberia stopped growing.
Crops failed. Plague and famine decimated Italy, China and the Middle
East. Keys quotes the writings of a 6th-Century Syrian bishop, John
of Ephesus: "The sun became dark.... Each day it shone for about
four hours and still this light was only a feeble shadow."
Italian historian, Flavius Cassiodorus, wrote: "We marvel to see
no shadows of our bodies at noon. We have summer without heat."
And a contemporary Chinese chronicler reported, "Yellow dust rained
say similar environmental calamities occurred about 3200 BC, 2300 BC,
1628 BC and 1159 BC. Each led to the collapse of urban societies.
as they were, the natural disasters that have plagued Earth since the
dawn of civilization are but popguns compared with the truly titanic
catastrophes of prehistoric eras. There have been at least five of
these monster events, each of which wiped out most of the creatures
living at the time, the fossil record shows. The best known was a
six-mile-wide meteor that smashed into what is now the Gulf of Mexico
65 million years ago. The collision wreathed the planet in clouds of
dust, poisoned the atmosphere and drove the dinosaurs, then rulers of
the Earth, into extinction. Traces of the enormous crater, at least
100 miles across, created by the impact were found in 1990.
wasn't the biggest blow the Earth has suffered. The mother of all extinctions,
which wiped out 90 percent of living species, happened about 245 million
years ago. Paleontologists say other mass extinctions occurred about
214 million, 360 million and 440 million years ago.
the evidence is debated, many researchers contend that most, if not
all, of these ecological disasters are connected to bombardments from
evidence is converging on the conclusion that mass extinctions coincided
with comet or asteroid impacts, and that periodic comet showers,
triggered by the solar system's motions through the Milky Way galaxy,
may provide a theory to explain impact-related mass extinctions,"
said Michael Rampino, a geologist at New York University. "After
an impact, the dense dust cloud that is created by the impact spreads
through the atmosphere, cuts out sunlight," Rampino said. "This
stops photosynthesis and causes the climate to get cold and dark, leading
to the mass extinction of large numbers of organisms." [Robert
Matthews, The Sunday Telegraph, 4 November 2001]
quoted above, dated 1999, suggests that cometary impacts are not only
possible, but that they occur more frequently than the uniformitarianists
would have us think. What is even more intriguing is the fact that the
Cassiopaeans told us, in 1998, point blank, that the Dark Ages in Europe
were caused by cometary showers. They dated it to 564 AD, however. I
rather suspect that, since they mentioned it before it was ever a published
fact, that their date might be the correct one.
the significant point here is that, even barring the idea of an ancient,
advanced civilization that may have engaged in atomic war thus altering
the elements that we rely on for radiometric dating, we must consider
that the same problem may exist as a result of repeated cometary impacts,
which can heat the atmosphere to near boiling temperatures.
to page 244
The owners and publishers
of these pages wish to state that the material presented here is the product
of our research and experimentation in Superluminal Communication. We invite
the reader to share in our seeking of Truth by reading with an Open, but skeptical
mind. We do not encourage "devotee-ism"
nor "True Belief." We DO encourage the seeking of Knowledge and Awareness in
all fields of endeavor as the best way to be able to discern lies from truth.
The one thing we can tell the reader is this: we work very hard, many hours
a day, and have done so for many years, to discover the "bottom line" of our
existence on Earth. It is our vocation, our quest, our job. We constantly seek
to validate and/or refine what we understand to be either possible or probable
or both. We do this in the sincere hope that all of mankind will benefit, if
not now, then at some point in one of our probable futures.
Contact Webmaster at cassiopaea.com
Copyright © 1997-2009 Arkadiusz Jadczyk and Laura Knight-Jadczyk. All
reserved. "Cassiopaea, Cassiopaean, Cassiopaeans," is a registered
trademark of Arkadiusz Jadczyk and Laura Knight-Jadczyk.
Letters addressed to Cassiopaea, Quantum Future School, Ark or Laura, become
the property of Arkadiusz Jadczyk and Laura Knight-Jadczyk
and re-dissemination of the contents of this screen or any portion of this website
in any manner is expressly prohibited without prior written consent.
You are visitor number 2740 since April 17, 2009[TextCounter Fatal Error: Could Not Increment Counter].